22days until
Primary MCQ 15/08/2014

55days until
Primary VIVA 17/09/2014

Cellular Injury

This is now the first 2 topic on the Pathology MCQ matrix at 3 MCQs cellular injury (5 further MCQs for tissue injury)
The path Syllabus now says:
        1.1 Cellular adaptation 1
        1.2 Mechanism of cell injury 1
i.e. The College has removed the "Normal Cell" that used to be the first part of the Pathology syllabus.

I still feel that understanding Physiology "building block" concepts and the  "Principles of cellular function" before tackling cellular level pathology is important but they are now only found in the Physiology Syllabus.


Robbins says:

Chapter 2 – Cellular Responses to Stress and Toxic Insults  : Adaptation, Injury, and Death
  Introduction to Pathology 31
  Overview: Cellular Responses to Stress and Noxious Stimuli 32
  Adaptations of Cellular Growth and Differentiation 34
  Hypertrophy 34
  Mechanisms of Hypertrophy 34

  Hyperplasia 35
  Physiologic Hyperplasia 36
  Pathologic Hyperplasia 36
  Mechanisms of Hyperplasia 36

  Atrophy 36
  Mechanisms of Atrophy 37

  Metaplasia 37
  Mechanisms of Metaplasia 38

  Overview of Cell Injury and Cell Death 38
  Causes of Cell Injury 39
  Morphologic Alterations in Cell Injury 40
  Reversible Injury 40
  Necrosis 41
  Patterns of Tissue Necrosis 43

  Mechanisms of Cell Injury 44
  Depletion of ATP 45
  Mitochondrial Damage 46
  Influx of Calcium and Loss of Calcium Homeostasis 46
  Accumulation of Oxygen-Derived Free Radicals (Oxidative Stress) 47
  Defects in Membrane Permeability 49
  Damage to DNA and Proteins 50

  Clinico-pathologic Correlations:
 Selected Examples of Cell Injury and Necrosis 50
  Ischemic and Hypoxic Injury 50

consider aiding your reading with the read-along Robbins version on youtube:
There is also a series of lectures online:

Amit says:

  • Definitions of hypertrophy, hyperplasia, atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia,

  • Describe mechanisms of cell inj. and death

  • Describe morphology of reversible and irreversible injury

  • What is apoptosis, and describe its mechanism, and morphology

  • Describe different types of necrosis, with examples, and morphology

  • What is the mechanism of reperfusion injury


This is a classic "Question 1" for the path component of the exam...

2011-1-3-1    Cell death/necrosis
2011-1-2-1    Atrophy
2011-1-1-1    Ischaemic cell injury
2010-2-2-1    Hypertrophy
2010-1-3-1    Hypertrophy
2010-1-2-1    Metaplasia
2010-1-1-1    Reperfusion injury
2009-2-3-1    Reversible versus irreversible cellular injury
2009-1-2-1    Cellular changes following ischemia
2008-2-1-1    Ischemic injury
2008-1-2-1    Apoptosis
2008-1-1-1    Hypertrophy vs. Hyperplasia
2007-2-1-1    Metaplasia
2007-1-3-1    Hypertrophy
2007-1-2-1    Atrophy
2007-1-1-1    Hyperplasia
2006-2-3-1    Apoptosis
2006-2-2-1    Reperfusion injury
2006-1-2-1    Reversible vs. irreversible ischaemic change
2006-1-1-1    Reperfusion injury